Obverse: John Macarthur (1766 – 11 April 1834) was a soldier, entrepreneur, politician and pioneer of the Australian wool industry.
Reverse:William James Farrer (3 April 1845 – 16 April 1906) was a leading Australian agronomist and plant breeder. Farrer is best remembered as the originator of the “Federation” strain of wheat, distributed in 1903. His work resulted in significant improvements in both the quality and crop yields of Australia’s national wheat harvest, a contribution for which he earned the title ‘father of the Australian wheat industry’.
Watermark: Captain Cook in left panel
Cook’s surveying ability was put to good use mapping the jagged coast of Newfoundland in the 1760s, aboard HMS Grenville. He surveyed the north-west stretch in 1763 and 1764, the south coast between the Burin Peninsula and Cape Ray in 1765 and 1766, and the west coast in 1767. At this time Cook employed local pilots to point out the “rocks and hidden dangers” along the south and west coasts. During the 1765 season, four pilots were engaged at a daily pay of 4 shillings each: John Beck for the coast west of “Great St. Lawrence”, Morgan Snook for Fortune Bay, John Dawson for Connaigre and Hermitage Bay, and John Peck for the “Bay of Despair.”
His five seasons in Newfoundland produced the first large-scale and accurate maps of the island’s coasts and were the first scientific, large scale, hydrographic surveys to use precise triangulation to establish land outlines. They also gave Cook his mastery of practical surveying, achieved under often adverse conditions, and brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society at a crucial moment both in his career and in the direction of British overseas discovery. Cook’s map would be used into the 20th century—copies of it being referenced by those sailing Newfoundland’s waters for 200 years.
Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, it was at this time that Cook wrote that he intended to go not only “farther than any man has been before me, but as far as I think it is possible for a man to go.”
*All details taken from Wikipedia for educational purposes only.